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Fat soluble vitamins

Fat soluble vitamins

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Fat soluble vitamins

Vitamin A (Retinoids)
Carotenoids that can be converted by the body into retinol are referred to as provitamin A carotenoids.
  • Deficiency: One may notice difficulty seeing in dim light and rough/dry skin.
  • Toxicity : Hypervitaminosis A is caused by consuming excessive amounts of preformed vitamin A, not the plant carotenoids. Preformed vitamin A is rapidly absorbed and slowly cleared from the body. Nausea, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, dizziness, and dry skin can result. Excess intake while pregnant can cause birth defects.
  • Sources : Carrots, sweet potato, pumpkin, green leafy vegetables, squash, cantaloupe, bell pepper, Chinese cabbage, beef, eggs, peaches
Vitamin D (Calciferol, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D)
Cholecalciferol = vitamin D3 = animal version; ergocalciferol = vitamin D2 = plant version
  • Deficiency : In children a vitamin D deficiency can result in rickets, deformed bones, retarded growth, and soft teeth. In adults a vitamin D deficiency can result inosteomalacia, softened bones, spontaneous fractures, and tooth decay. Those atrisk for deficiency include infants, elderly, dark skinned individuals, those with minimal sun exposure, fat malabsorption syndromes, inflammatory bowel diseases, kidney failure, and seizure disorders.
  • Toxicity : Hypervitaminosis D is not a result of sun exposure but from chronic supplementation. Excessive supplement use will elevate blood calcium levels and cause loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, excessive thirst, excessive urination, itching, muscle weakness, joint pain and disorientation. Calcification of soft tissues can also occur.
  • Sources: Sunlight, fortified foods, mushrooms, salmon, mackerel, sardines, tuna, eggs
Vitamin E (tocopherol)
  • Deficiency: Only noticed in those with severe malnutrition. However, suboptimal intake of vitamin E is relatively common.
  • Toxicity: Minimal side effects have been noted in adults taking supplements in doses less than 2000 mg/day. There is a potential for impaired blood clotting. Infants are more vulnerable.
  • Sources: Green leafy vegetables, almonds, sunflower seeds, olives, blueberries, most nuts, most seeds, tomatoes, avocado
Vitamin K
  • Deficiency: Tendency to bleed or hemorrhage and anemia.
  • Toxicity : May interfere with glutathione. No known toxicity with high doses.
  • Sources : Broccoli, green leafy vegetables, parsley, watercress, asparagus, Brussels sprouts, green beans, green peas, carrots

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